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Your Basic Hedgehog Care Guide

Hedgehogs are absolutely adorable to look at but do they make good pets? Is taking care of a hedgehog difficult? What do they need to stay healthy? Here you will find information on keeping hedgehogs as pets.

Are hedgehogs good pets?

The African pygmy hedgehog is the most common species of hedgehog kept as a pet due in large part to its compact size. This adorable little creature can make an ideal pet for many people, but it's essential to do your research before buying in order to be certain that a hedgehog's personality and needs fit in with your lifestyle.

It's important to note that like reptiles and many other domesticated animals, hedgehogs can carry salmonella as such, hedgehogs are not recommended for families with children under five years of age, seniors, or those with compromised immune systems.

Are hedgehogs cuddly?

In the wild hedgehogs are solitary animals, meaning that they spend most of their time alone except during mating season. Their naturally solitary nature means they tend to be wary of people and generally shy. It takes patience and a gentle hand to form a trusting bond with a pet hedgehog.

That said, if you get your hedgehog while it is very young and take enough time to very slowly get your new pet used to being handled, hedgehogs can be quite playful although they may never reach the status of cuddly. 

Even though cuddles aren't their thing, once your pet hedgehog has settled in and has become accustomed to being handled, you will be able to stroke their quills and allow your hedgehog to climb up your arms and (with supervision) explore different spaces.

How hard is it to have a hedgehog as a pet?

Before committing to caring for one, it's important to understand how to care for a hedgehog. While hedgehogs are considerably smaller than cats or dogs, they still require exercise, a nutritious diet, and regular veterinary care. Not only that, hedgehogs come with a host of requirements that will need to be met in order to keep them happy including a large enclosure, an exercise wheel, and toys so they don't become bored.

Another important factor to consider is that hedgehogs are nocturnal, meaning that they are awake all night and sleep all day. You can expect most hedgehogs to wake up and become active at around dinnertime, then be tucking themselves into bed just as you're waking up.

Are hedgehogs dangerous?

There are a number of safety concerns to consider when it comes to owning a hedgehog as a pet. 

Salmonella & Hedgehogs

In 2019 the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) investigated a number of cases of salmonella linked to pet hedgehogs and warned that even hedgehogs that appear perfectly healthy can carry salmonella. If you handle a pet hedgehog be sure to protect yourself from this condition by taking the following steps:

  • Wash Hands Thoroughly: Always wash hands thoroughly with soap and water right after touching, feeding, or caring for a hedgehog or cleaning its enclosure.
  • Play Safely: Don’t kiss or snuggle hedgehogs, because this can spread Salmonella germs to your face and mouth. Don’t allow hedgehogs to roam freely in areas where food is prepared or stored, such as kitchens or dining tables.
  • Keep Your Hedgehog's Environment Squeaky Clean: Clean and wash enclosures, toys, and supplies outside of your house when possible. Do not clean these items in the kitchen or any place where food is prepared, served, or stored.

Hedgehog Quills

  • Hedgehog quills can penetrate the skin and spread bacteria that may lead to illnesses in pet owners. If you get a puncture from a hedgehog quill be sure to clean your hands and the puncture area thoroughly. Monitor the puncture area carefully for signs of infection.

Hedgehog Bites

  • Although hedgehogs do bite, their tiny teeth are unlikely to cause you very much pain. The force of a hedgehog bite is typically linked to what your pet is feeling. A really angry hedgehog could cause a bite that hurts a bit. That said, hamsters and other rodents are far more likely to administer a really painful bite when angry or scared.

How much room do pet hedgehogs need?

In the wild hedgehogs will travel for miles each night foraging for food, this instinct to roam means that hedgehogs require larger enclosures than you may expect, and a wheel for exercise is an absolute must. 

If you want to keep a happy and healthy hedgehog for a pet you will need to provide an enclosure that measures at least 24" x 24", (although larger is recommended). Provide your pet hedgehog with the largest enclosure you can accommodate so that they have plenty of space to explore each night.

NOTE: Hedgehogs are busy little nocturnal creatures, so keeping your pet hedgehog in your bedroom is not recommended! They can be surprisingly noisy at night. 

What do hedgehogs need in their cage?

Hedgehogs need to be kept busy to stay contented and healthy. An exercise wheel is an essential part of any hedgehog enclosure, as are a litter box, sleeping box and eating area.

To help keep your pet hedgehog busy supply your pet with a selection of tunnels and toys such as stuffed animals or small balls.

What do pet hedgehogs eat?

In the wild, hedgehogs enjoy a varied diet of insects, plants and roots. To keep your pet healthy, ask your exotic pet veterinarian for their recommendations on hedgehog foods, treats and supplements. Many veterinarians recommend feeding pet hedgehogs a high quality kibble formulated specifically for hedgehogs. These foods typically contain about 30% protein (or more) and less than 20% fat. Along with hedgehog kibble, your veterinarian may suggest supplementing your pet's diet with a variety of other healthy treats, such as:

  • Fresh fruits (apples, bananas, berries)
  • Live or freeze-dried mealworms
  • Live waxworms
  • Cooked Egg
  • Pinky Mice
  • Cooked meat (chicken)
  • High protein, low-fat dog food
  • Live or freeze-dried crickets
  • Fresh veggies (tomatoes, green beans)

Are pet hedgehogs legal where you live?

According to some wildlife experts, hedgehogs can harm local ecosystems if released into the wild. This is because hedgehogs compete with native species for food and habitat. For this reason, many states have banned keeping hedgehogs as pets. Many other exotic pets such as sugar gliders, ferrets and Quaker parakeets are also banned in several states for the same reason.

California, Georgia, Hawaii, New York City, Omaha, Nebraska, and Washington, D.C. are a few of the places where pet hedgehogs are banned. Be sure to check your town, city, region and state bylaws to ensure that it is ok for you to keep a hedgehog. 

If you own a hedgehog but find caring for your pet too difficult, contact your local animal rescue agency. Never release pet hedgehogs into the wild.

Is a hedgehog the right pet for you?

Owning a pet hedgehog may not be as straightforward as you thought but, by doing your research, visiting breeders, and speaking to an exotic mammal vet, you will be able to decide whether a hedgehog is a good pet for you. For many people, hedgehogs are playful and amusing pets worth making the extra effort for.

But don't forget, before committing to caring for one of these adorable creatures check that it's legal to own a pet hedgehog in your town, city or region!

Note: The advice provided in this post is intended for informational purposes and does not constitute medical advice regarding pets. For an accurate diagnosis of your pet's condition, please make an appointment with your vet.

At Carolina Veterinary Specialists, our exotic animal vet can provide valuable guidance on hedgehog pet care including diet, exercise, housing requirements and baby hedgehog care. Contact us today to book an examination for your exotic pet.

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